Roman art

greek: mostly temples to glorify gods, walls made of stone blocks, used recangles and straight lines, post and lintel support, Doric and ionic columns, sculptures of idealized gods and goddesses, paintings have stylized figures floating in space, subject of art was often mythology

roman: mostly civic buildings to honor the empire, walls made of concrete with ornamental facing, used lots of circles and curved lines, supports were rounded arches and vaults, Corinthian columns the sculpture was realistic human beings and idealized government officials, painting was realistic images and used perspective, subject of art was mostly civic leaders and military victories

roman art:

philosophy- efficiency, organization and practicality

art forms- mosaics, realistic wall paintings and idealized civic sculpturers

the most famous building is the pantheon, city is Rome, role modle was greece

Rome was the main contributor to western law, engineering, and government

roman architecture:

public buildings, forums, basilicas, public baths, amphitheaters, circuses

EX- forum romanum constructed over several centuries in rome. Holds temples, state offices, basilicas, and monuments.

Basilica: large roofed buildings that functioned as municipal halls and courts. They latter became Christian churches. 3 isles, large central nave flanked by two smaller isles

ex basilica of trier ad 3120

ex ruins of mavextius ad 300

ex ruins of Constantine ad 310-320

Romans were the first to create vast interior space using arches, vaults, and concrete

public bathes ex the baths of caracalla ad 211-217

amphitheaters ex the coliseum 72-80ad built for gladiator and mock naval battles it covered about 6 acres and could be flooded for naval battles. Stone was taken from the coliseum for later building projects.. it was made out of brick, stone, and concrete

there were 80 arched openings, 76 for the public, 1 for the emperor, 1 for priestesses, 1 "door of death" to carry out dead gladiators, 1 "door of life" to carry out the victors

a canvas covered the coliseum, it could fit 50,000 people

circuses- chariot races. Circus maximus held up to 200,000 people

roman sculpture:

types: sarcophagus, portraits, busts, in the round, equestrian statues

ex. augusta of prima porta early 1st century 6 foot 8 inch in the round marble

remains unfinished in the back, it was placed in a niche with the back to a wall

barefoot symbolizes divinity, head is idealized and youthfull,

influenced by the spearbearer

figure at his feet is cupid riding a dolfin, symbolizes relationship to the gods

ex the head of augustus 2nd cent 17 inches marble MFA in Boston

realistic and individualistic, not idealized. It was designed so people in the empire would know what the emperor looked like.

Ex vespasian 75 ad marble lifesize damaged chin was repaired

emphisis is on the texture of the hair and skin

ex philipus the arab 244-249 ad marble life-size facial realism

aim of this work is expressive, not documentary

ex the equestrian statue of marcus aureleus 161-180 ad bronze

unarmed, a bringer of peace rather than a military commander

it is the only well preserved equestrian statue from antiquity

the rider is almost as big as the horse

ex- monumental head of Constantine 313 ad marble 9 ft tall

part of an enormous sculpture once placed in the basilica

head, arms, legs and feet were marble, the drapery was bronze plates over a masonry frame. Combines realism and the abstract, cleft chin, roman nose, thick, muscular neck, huge staring eyes, perfectly styled hair.

Eyes represent:

  1. authority and power
  2. his god like presence
  3. his ability to penetrate the world of the divine.

Ex- double portrait late 1st century bc white marble funerary sculpture

she is young he is old they are husband and wife

"best known" example of a married couple from this period

Roman painting:

murals fresco buon style is Hellenistic and often copied Hellenistic works

ex- the battle of essus 100 bc marble mosaic tesserae- individual stones in a mosaic

there are more than 1 million tesserae in this work

only four colors, red, yellow, white, black

subject- the victory of Alexander the great over darius and the persian army

the work is noted for:

  1. accurate anatomy of the men and horses
  2. marvelous detail
  3. very complicated, lots of people and action
  4. successful representation of vivid and energetic scenes

ex- the drinking contest of dionysos and heracles 100ad mosaic

worcester art museum it decorated the floor of a dining room in a roman villa

the subject is a drinking contest between heracles and the wine god

ex- hunting scene early 6th century mosaic worcester art museum

the subject is the hunting of dangerous game

ex- heracles strangling the serpant 63-79 ad fresco

ex- still life from heracleum 50 ad fresco

perspective is shown by the highlights in the vase and the shading

ex lasestrygonians hurling rocks at the feet of odysius

late 1st century atmospheric perspective shown by the change of color

ex- scene of a dionysia mystery cult most famous room in roman painted art

it was the meeting place of a religious cult

subject matter: the initiation of a new member into the cult

many poses and gestures are classical.