art for the dead 3000-1000 BC
frontality: carved or sculpted figures looking straight ahead
hieroglyphics: picture writing from Egypt
Ka: the spirit or soul of a dead person
osiris: god of the Nile and underworld
Isis: great mother goddess
Ra (re) : sun god
horus: falcon god, god of the sky
pharaoh: most important person in Egyptian society, a king and a god
mastabas: a burial chamber, a single layer, like a cake. Made of sun baked brick.
Sarcophagus: a stone coffin
stylization: subject is not accurately depicted, idealized, beautified
imhotep: first artist whose name is known. Designed the step pyramid of king zoser
tutankhamen: king whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922 in the valley of the kings. It was filled with treasures.
Key concepts in Egyptian art:
the artist tried to portray the body with all parts accurate, so that the Ka would recognize the body
why all this art for the dead?
time was divided into old middle and new kingdoms
pyramids are old kingdom
first female ruler was queen hatshepsut
all architecture was tomb architecture
forms of stability were designed to last forever
mastabas = step pyramids = real pyramids = funerary temples = large mortuary temples
frontal, one entrance, walls lead in, sloped,
serdah = sealed chamber for the substitute image it was a home for the dead
EX-step pyramid of king zoser at saquurra made of limestone
7 layers of mastabas, each on top is smaller than the ones on bottom
earliest large stone structure in the world
the true pyramid why the pyramid form?
the three great pyramids at Giza: khufu (cheops), khafre, menkure
built of limestone with a granite top, covers 13 acres and is 480 feet tall
best known of 80 pyramids in Egypt
interior of the pyramids was a network of chambers, galleries, and air shafts
pyramids lack upward movement because their bases are larger than their height
this suggest stability and permanence
the great sphinx is 85 feet high and guard the pyramids lion shows power of the king
queen hatshepsut created a funerary temple, partly in stone, in 1480 BC.
The background of the cliff shows a nature statement and creates a mood
priest temples were also important. They were religious structures. They had rows of statues. The front and gate was called the pylon. The courtyard was open to the sky. Only the important people got to go all the way into the temple. It created a mood of mystery and increasing intensity as you walk deeper into the temple.
The palette of king narmer 3000BC narmer united upper + lower Egypt
the seated scribe from saqurra painted limestone, seated with legs crossed
men were dark colored, women were lighter colored
ahkenaten 1379-1362 amarna period monotheistic religion, changed art temporarily
softer, more descriptive , with a new sense of form, less idealized
the gold mask of tutankhamen 1340 BC.