Northern European Paintings in the 16th Century
Hieronymous bosch 1470-1516 Most important Netherlands painter
Greatest fantasy artist ever. About 40 works survive; itís hard to trace his style because his works are not dated. Some works are conventional, others are bizzare. Filled with religious symbolism and folk legend. He was forgotten after the 1600ís and rediscovered in the 1920ís.
EX- seven deadly sins and the four last things oil on wood
Painted on a tabletop. A mirror of heaven watches over us. It looks almost like an eye. Jesus is in the center, rays of light come out.
Cave, cave, dominus videt = beware, beware, the lord sees!
4 last things- old man dying on his deathbed; last judgement; heaven; hell
EX- the garden of earthly delights triptych oil on wood 1505-1510
3 panels garden of Eden; world before the flood; hell
the meaning is unclear, the patron is unknown
central panel shows corruption through lust. Hell is a dark region of disaster. God presents eve to Adam in Eden. In hell, buildings burn and elaborate torches and dismembered body parts take on a life of there own.
Pieter Bruegal 1525-1569 foremost painter of 16th century netherlands
"The second Bosch" know as "the peasant bruegal" but he wasnít a peasant, he was a townsman. His work focused on the life of peasants and the moods of nature. About 50 works survive. Best known for his understandign of the human condition, powers of expression, and the painting chills (use of texture and color to define form)
EX- Landscape with the fall of icarus 1554-1555
Reveals his interest in landscapes
Shows the intense relationship between the peasants and the land. Shows the human and nature link. Bright clothing contrast the subdued background. The work sugess it is "better to tend the land than brave the skys"
Daedlus is icarusís father
EX- the peasant dance 1567 Visual irony, peasants drink and party while religious symbol are scattered through out the work
EX- the return of the hunters 1565 "winter"
EX- the blind leading the blind 1568 from Matt 15:12-19
Each blind man was blinded by a different ailment
Albrecht Durer german 1471-1528 influenced by the italian renaissance
"leonardo of the north" his work as an engraver and woodcut artist brought him international fame. He was the best printmaker of his time.
First artist to be facinated by his own image
EX- self portrait 1498 20 by 16 inches prato in madrid
Born in nurenburg germany, family was goldsmiths, he train as a metal worker and as an painter at age 20 he went on a wanderjahr to Italy for a year to study art
He was the court painter of the holy roman emperor
Transition from gothic to renaissance
Inspired by leonardo, his works show leonardoís style in the :
known for his AD monogram. He included it and an inscription on all of his works.
EX- the four horsemen of apocalypse woodcut from book of revelations
Godís presence is indicated by the light
Death is the sickly old man with a pitchfork
Plague has arrows, similar to st. sebastion the saint of plagues
Famine has a scale used to measure grain
War has a sword
The use of line was important. Famine is the main character and is central and largest
EX- Melen Colia engraving 1514
Melus- black; Colos- Wrath, Vile
4 Humors- bodily fluids that control behavior
Durer is concentrated on the linear qualities
EX- St. Jerome in his study engraving
Symbols: skull; lion; cruxifix; cardinals hat
Mattias Grunewald german 1475-1528
His works were imbedded with the most concentrated spiritual emotionalism imaginable
EX- Isenheim Altarpeice 1510-1515 a monumental polyptych
Left- st sebastian, plague saint
Right. St Anthony, a healer
Commissioned by st. Anthonyís hospital Crucifixion depicted in the middle
Lambs blood flows into a chalice. Bottom is the lamentation
Crisp linear quality places emphasis on the crucifixion.
The inside shows the annunciation, concert of angels and the resurrection