Mannerism

    1. Characteristics: Distortion and elongation of figures; Flatness, almost 2 dimensional space; lack of a defined focal point; the use of discordant pastel colors; frequently dramatic or violent subject matter; the artists paint different and art different

Rosso Fiorentino 1495-1540 Eccentric or "one strange dude" from Florence

Pioneer of mannerism he trained with andrea del sarto. He lived with a baboon.

He dug up corpses because he was facinated by decomposition. Many of his works have a sinister quality to them. A priest saw one of his works and said the painter was possessed. rosso killed himself.

His style: intense drama – strained poses; extreme foreshortening; crowded figures; bold color contrasts

EX- the virgin and child with St. Anne and the young St john.

EX- decent from the cross 1521 oil on panel considered his masterpiece

Figures are agitated, yet rigid; spidery forms against the dark sky; sharp edged lines; acid colors; unreal light;

EX- Moses defending the daughters of jethro 1523 oil on canvas

The anatomy is similar to michelangelo’s

Pontormo 1499-1557 "nuts" or "one Strange Agent"

Trained in florence under da vinci and piero de cosimo and andrea del sarto

He was certifiable mad; he was a hypochondriac and was obsessed with death and the state of his bowels; he was isolated from people; his diary survived.

His style: colors unsettling; his figures are in agitated poses and have anguished perspectives.

EX- entombment 1525-1528 oil on panel he includes a self portrait

EX- Portrait of Cosimo I de Medici 1537 show the arrogance and vulnerability of youth

Paramigianino 1503- 1504 "little fellow from Parma"

Personality: many conflicts and lawsuits; preoccupation with alchemy and counterfeiting; gave up painting; vasari said he was "unkempt, melancholy, eccentric"; he was buried naked with a cross on his chest; he identified himself with christ.

EX- self portrait in a convex mirror mannerist oil on wood 1524 an early work

He tried to impress the pope by painting himself in a mirror, the background appears curved

His face was not distorted and his hand is close-up and enlarged. Emphasized hand is part of the picture iconography.

EX- Madonna and child "Madonna of the long neck" 1535 oil on wood florence

Odd spatial position and non-classical proportions; typical mannerist work; short from the waste up, long from the waist down; her elongated neck flows into spatial twist of her torso and legs- this creates the figura serpentina- serpent like figure; background man with scroll is an old testament prophet, a logical and visible link between pagan and Christian

Bronzino 1503-1572

Pupil and adopted son of pontormo

EX- Allegory called Venus, Cupid, Folly, and time Oil on wood 1545

Mannerist obscure images and erotic overtones,

Commissioned by cossimo de medici for francis 1st of France

Benvente Cellini goldsmith murdered two in Rome, traveled to avoid arrest

EX- saltcellar of francis 1st of France originally designed to hold salt and pepper

Earth goddess and Neptune are leaning back in an unnatural pose

Ship, horse, cornucopia, winds, seasons and time are symbols that are in the work

The Counter Reformation painters

The council of Trent on art. 1546-1564 tried to eliminate corruption

Denounced Luther’s campaign. Reaffirmed catholic doctrine. Improved priest education and reassurted the power of the pope. Art was effected and became:

  1. didactic
  2. ethically correct
  3. decent
  4. accurate in its treatment of religious subjects
  5. parallel old and new testament, not classicism
  6. appeal to emotion, not reason

It led to: intolerance; moralizing; taste for exaggerated religious works

The Trial of Veronese july 18, 1573

The most famous case brought up before the holy tribunal, agents of the inquisition

He painted a questionable version of the last supper for a monastery dining room in Venice. He was given 3 months to fix the work at his own expense, but instead of making changes he changed the title of the work to "Christ in the house of Levi"

Veronese 1528-1588 of the venetian school

EX- the last supper renamed "Christ at the house of Levi" 18 by 42 feet

He dominated venetian painting illustrates disotto in su looking up from below perspective

Tintoretto (little dyer in Italian) Jacopo Robusti his father was a wool dyer 1518-1594

Oil on canvas 12 by 18 feet in Venice impacted by the counter reformation

El Greco (the Greek) Domenikos Theotocopoulos 1541-1614

Born in Crete an influenced by Byzantine art. Worked in an Titian’s workshop

Worked in Rome then settled in Toledo Spain, center of roman catholic Spain

"The Greatest Mannerist painter"

El Greco’s distinctive style: Biblical subject matter; elongated distortion of the figures; rhythmic movement; powerful value contrasts that create flame like leaps and arches

EX- the resurrection of Christ oil on canvas 1597-1604 9 by 4 feet

Located in Prado, Madrid, Spain. He was a Counter Reformation painter of the mannerist style. He focused on Christian mysticism. Christ rises into light, he has a diamond halo. Twisting and unstable poses blended by the divine light of Christ. Surface is animated by flicking flames of light. 3-d space is radically decreased.

EX- view of toledo 1608 oil

One of the greatest landscapes in the history of art; painted 31 years after he moved to Toledo; landscapes were a very small part of his works; personnel feeling and mood of artist is added.

EX- the burial of count orgaz 1586 oil on canvas His best known painting;

Subject matter: it is the legend of a miracle in which St. Augustine and St. Stephen appear to help lower the counts body into the grave.

2 sections, earthly and heavenly. Combines mysticism with realism.

EX- the temptation of Christ

EX- the purification of the temple

EX- Laoocoon and his sons

Palladio

EX- Pan and dissection of the villa rotunda

Built between 1566 and 1570 in vicenza Italy for a venetian cleric.

The front replicates a classic temple portico. There are four porticos of the same style on each side of the square structure. Palladio believed the classical entrance gave it an air of dignity and grandeur. The square plan is typical of palladio. The villa has passages radiating from the central dome to the four portico’s. it is decorated by classical statues. The architecture was designed to be recreational.

EX- san Georgio Maggiore Vaice 1565-1595 stands on an island facing the grand canal.

It combined classical structure, including a high nave and low side isles, with Corinthian columns. It had juxtaposed form and space that were inconsistent with classical style. The broken pediment involved interrupting one pediment by imposing another on top of it, broken pediment was a characteristic of baroque art.

Vocab

Wanderjahr- a year of journey to study art, often in itaky

Putto- male nude, like cupid

Butin- the tooled to carve print plates

Karel van mander- wrote "the painters book" a biography of northern painters

Cave, cave, dominus videt- beware, beware the lord sees

Brotherhood of our lady- a religious fraternity bosch joined

The four last things- death, last judgement, heaven, hell

The seven deadly sins- pride, coventnous, lust, envy, gluttony, anger, sloth

The four humors- bodily fluids that controlled personality

di sotto in su perspective- looking up from below perspective.